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The Siguiriya has been described as singing of "pains without possible consolation, wounds that will never close, crimes without human redemption...
the lament of the earth that will never be the sky, the sea that knows no limits, the good-bye eternal, forever".
THE LANGUAGE OF FLAMENCO I must make mention here of the particular dialect of Flamenco, as well as its non-Spanish influences, I know several Spaniards who have a difficult time understanding the dialect known as "Andalz," and for Americans who understand a little Spanish, Flamenco records can present a real challenge, Consider the following verse: En mita der ma In Castilian Spanish this would be spelled (and pronounced) En mitad del mar In Andalz, many last letters are dropped off words, the letter 's' if contained in the middle of a word is rarely pronounced, and the diphthong sounding like "aahheu" often ends-words ending verses as well as at natural breathing points (my examples are replete with the latter.
Notice, for example, Mara Vargas' pronunciation of the second "Piconera" in example no. This emphasis on regional dialect, as well as the content of many Cante Jondo verses, has drawn many to compare Flamenco with the Blues in the United States.
" and "..est en la sinagoga," there is no extant scholarship that dates the song back to 1492, when the Jews were expelled from Spain.
The petenera's origin is shrouded in time, but as a song form, doesn't appear to predate the 19th century.
Although true "duende" all too rarely occurs in the recording studio, examples ',4,5,6,7, and 8 on the cassette each contain it, with perhaps Ta Anica la Piriaca (no. NON-JONDO FLAMENCO With the passage of time, other forms of Spanish music interacted with the Cante to form two sub-groups, the "Cante Intermedio" and "Cante Chico", Cante Intermedio most often describes working conditions, and death, but with less of a tragic feel than Cante Jondo, In the Petenera, she is described as "the perdition of men", but we somehow sense that our singer will survive to love again, as opposed to Cante Jondo, in which he would certainly be hearing the death knell.
These latter fall often into the category of "Cante Jondo," or deep song, and it will be the main point of this paper to describe Cante Jondo; all modern Flamenco springs from it, and as the early examples on the cassette attest, bears a strong resemblance to Arabic music.HISTORY OF FLAMENCO Some scholars of Flamenco believe that Cante Jondo evolved out of a mixture of early Byzantine, Arab, Jewish and Gypsy cultures in Andaluca.At the time the Gypsies arrived, Christian, Jewish and Muslim music all existed in both liturgical and vernacular forms in much of Spain, including Andalca.Again, the "Cana" in example two is perhaps the oldest style of Flamenco we know of: the singer is encouraged by shouts of '01e! I have included a recording of Montoya from the 1930s, accompanying the mournful voice of Antonio Chacn (example no.l0), and it is not difficult to see the startling difference between this more technically-oriented style and that of the two Spanish pieces listed above.